9.3 Generation Statistics

9.3 Generation Statistics

The energy resources in the MISO footprint continue to evolve. Environmental regulations, improved technologies and ageing infrastructure have spurred changes in the way electricity is generated.

Fuel availability and fuel prices introduce a regional aspect into the selection of generation, not only in the past but also going forward. Planned generation additions and retirements in the U.S. from 2014 to 2018 separated by fuel type shows the increased role natural gas and renewable energy sources will play in the future (Table 9.3-1).

Table 9.3-1: Forecasted generation capacity changes by energy source[1]

Table 9.3-1: Forecasted generation capacity changes by energy source[1]

The increased fuel-mix diversity from the addition of the South region helps limit the exposure to the variability of fuel prices.

The majority of MISO North and Central regions’ dispatched generation comes, historically, from coal. With the introduction of the South region, MISO added an area where a majority of the dispatched generation comes from natural gas. The increased fuel-mix diversity from the addition of the South region helps to limit the exposure to the variability of fuel prices. This adjustment to the composition of resources contributes to MISO’s goal of an economically efficient wholesale market that minimizes the cost to deliver electricity.

After the December 2013 integration of the South region, the percentage of coal units decrease as the amount of gas units increase as shown by trend lines (Figure 9.3-2).

Figure 9.3-2: Real-time generation by fuel type

Figure 9.3-2: Real-time generation by fuel type

 Different regions have different makeups in terms of generation (Figure 9.3-3). A real time look at MISO fuel mix can be found on the MISO Fuel Mix Chart.[2]

* Based on 5-minute unit level dispatch target

Figure 9.3-3: Dispatched generation fuel mix by region

Figure 9.3-3: Dispatched generation fuel mix by region

Renewable Portfolio Standards

Renewable portfolio standards (RPS) require utilities to use or procure renewable energy to account for a defined percentage of their retail electricity sales. Renewable portfolio goals are similar to renewable portfolio standards but are not a legally binding commitment.

Renewable portfolio standards are determined at the state level and differ based upon state-specific policy objectives (Table 9.3-1). Differences may include eligible technologies, penalties and the mechanism by which the amount of renewable energy is being tallied.

State RPS Type Target RPS (%) Target Mandate (MW) Target Year
AR None
IA Standard 105
IL Standard 25% 2025
IN Goal 10% 2025
KY None
LA None
MI Standard 10% 1100 2015
MN Standard – all utilitiesXcel Energy

 

Solar standard – investor-owned utilities

25%30%

 

1.5%

20252020

 

2020

MO Standard 15% 2021
MS None
MT Standard 15% 2025
ND Goal 10% 2015
SD Goal 10% 2015
TX Standard 5880 2015
WI Standard 10% 2015
Table 9.3-1: Renewable portfolio policy summary for states in the MISO footprint

Wind

Wind energy is the most prevalent renewable energy resource in the MISO footprint. Wind capacity in the MISO footprint has increased exponentially since the start of the energy market in 2005. Beginning with nearly 1,000 MW of installed wind, the MISO footprint now contains 13,661.85 MW of wind capacity as of June 3, 2015.

Wind energy offers lower environmental impacts than conventional generation, contributes to renewable portfolio standards and reduces dependence on fossil fuels. Wind energy also presents a unique set of challenges. Wind energy is intermittent by nature and driven by weather conditions. Wind energy also may face unique siting challenges.

A real-time look at the average wind generation in the MISO footprint can be seen on the MISO real time wind generation graph[3].

Data collected from the MISO Monthly Market Assessment Reports[4] determines the energy contribution from wind and the percentage of total energy supplied by wind (Figure 9.3-4).

Figure 9.3-4: Monthly energy contribution from wind

Figure 9.3-4: Monthly energy contribution from wind

Capacity factor measures how often a generator runs over a period of time. Knowing the capacity factor of a resource gives a greater sense of how much electricity is actually produced relative to the maximum the resource could produce. The graphic compares the total registered wind capacity with the actual wind output for the month. The percentage trend line helps to emphasize the variance in the capacity factor of wind resources (Figure 9.3-5).

Figure 9.3-5: Total registered wind and capacity factor

Figure 9.3-5: Total registered wind and capacity factor

 

 

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[1] EIA, http://www.eia.gov/electricity/annual/html/epa_04_05.html

[2] https://www.misoenergy.org/MarketsOperations/RealTimeMarketData/Pages/FuelMix.aspx

[3] https://www.misoenergy.org/MarketsOperations/RealTimeMarketData/Pages/RealTimeWindGeneration.aspx

[4] https://www.misoenergy.org/MarketsOperations/MarketInformation/Pages/MonthlyMarketAnalysisReports.aspx

[5] https://www.misoenergy.org/MarketsOperations/RealTimeMarketData/Pages/RealTimeWindGeneration.aspx

[6] https://www.misoenergy.org/MarketsOperations/MarketInformation/Pages/MonthlyMarketAnalysisReports.aspx